We show the SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) results from our Y-DNA SNP tests (transferred Geno 2.0, Advanced SNP, Backbone, or old Deepclade) under the Haplotree tool in the Haplogroup Information box. The names of the SNPs are numbers prefixed with a letter or set of letters. These most often indicate the research lab that discovered it.

Research Labs’ Prefixes
Designation Research Lab
IMS-JST Institute of Medical Science-Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan
L The Family Tree DNA Genomic Research Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America
M Stanford University, California, United States of America
P University of Arizona, Arizona, United States of America
PAGE/PAGES/PS Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Massachusetts, United States of America
PK Biomedical and Genetic Engineering Laboratories, Islamabad, Pakistan
U University of Central Florida, Florida, United States of America
V La Sapienza, Rome, Italy
CTS Welcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK
F Fudan University, People’s Republic of China
PF Dipartimento di Zoologia e Genetica Evoluzionistica, Università di Sassari, Italy
Z and DF Various members of the Genetic Genealogy community, Worldwide

The research group names the SNP by assigning it the letter or set of letters that represents their lab. The team then assigns a sequential number to the SNP.

For example, the University of Arizona are prefixes SNPs they discover with the letter P. Thus, P109 is the 109th SNP named by the University of Arizona.

In addition, the SNP M253 is the 253rd SNP that the research group at Stanford University has named.

After each SNP, you will see either a plus (+) or a minus (-) sign. The plus sign means that you are positive for the SNP. The minus sign means that you are negative for the SNP.

For example, your results show L22+, M253+, P109-; you are positive for the M253 and L22 SNPs and negative for the P109 SNP.

Note that some SNPs discovered in early population genetic research may have prefixes related to their location on the Y-Chromosome or other genetic features. These include LINE, LLY, MEH, RPS, and SRY.