A last name or family name traditionally in many Western European countries passed down from a father to his children.


A subclade is a subgrouping in the haplogroups of the human genetic trees. This may be either the Y-chromosome tree or the mitochondrial tree. Subclades are more specific to a location or population group than [...]

Sister Clade

A sister clade is one of two haplogroups or subclades that are at the same level on a phylogenetic tree. For Y-chromosome research, this is sometimes a brother clade. For example, on the maternal tree, [...]

Short Tandem Repeat (STR)

A short DNA motif (pattern) repeated in tandem. ATGC repeated eleven times would give the marker a value or allele of 11.

Sex Chromosome

The X or Y chromosome. Normally males have one X and one Y and females have two Xs.