A last name or family name traditionally in many Western European countries passed down from a father to his children.
A subclade is a subgrouping in the haplogroups of the human genetic trees. This may be either the Y-chromosome tree or the mitochondrial tree. Subclades are more specific to a location or population group than [...]
A sister clade is one of two haplogroups or subclades that are at the same level on a phylogenetic tree. For Y-chromosome research, this is sometimes a brother clade. For example, on the maternal tree, [...]