Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

A technique allowing the production of multiple copies of extremely small amounts of DNA fragments using DNA polymerase and specific primers.


The enzyme that starts the process of making nucleic acids or assembling RNA or DNA.

Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree is the reconstruction through genetics of a lineage. See Also: Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) Tree


Phylogenetics is the study of how genetics can be used to show how people are related.


For STRs, a plot which shows the length of a fragment of DNA. This allows its allele value to be measured.

Parallel Mutation

A parallel mutation is when the same genetic change happens in completely unrelated lineages.